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Southern Pine Patterns


Flooring Installation
Finishing & Care

2008 Trout River Lumber Brochure


Carefully Dried & Milled for Discriminating Customers

Weekes has selected a producer in Virginia to supply a new line of Southern Pine patterns.  This producer slowly dries the Pine to 10% m.c. over 19 days, which creates a softer, more stable board and prevents problems from occurring.  Then they run the patterns on state-of-the-art moulders, again, slowly, to produce the finest Southern Pine available today!

Stocked and Available from Weekes:


1 x 4 Uni-Plank Flooring
     Clear, Tongue & Groove
1 x 6 Select Knotty Flooring
  Tongue & Groove
1 x 4 Multi-Plank Paneling
Beaded Ceiling/WP-4

     Clear, Reversible
Lengths - 8 - 16', heavy longs
Multi-Plank TM - Their grade for perfectly clear, two-sided patterns
Uni-Plank TM - Their grade for a clear face, 1-sided pattern


You'll Find These Features Unique to Southern Pine:

bulletStronger and more durable than other species of Pine
bulletLess expensive than other species of Pine or Fir for comparable grades
bulletBetter tallies - specified lengths in some cases
bulletState of the Art Drying & Milling
bulletDried to Avg. 10% M.C.
bullet19 Day slow drying cycle eliminates brittleness, provides better milling finish
bulletIt's stable.  No shrinkage or cupping occurs.
bulletHand fed moulder finish

Southern Pine Flooring: Flooring Installation Figure 8 Starter Strip

Strip Flooring

Inspect plywood nailing bases for evenness and sand any peaking edges, leveling the seams. Flooring should lay perpendicular to the floor joists. It should also lay with the strips spanning the longer room dimension end-to-end. It is advantageous if the overall strip layout runs lengthwise the same direction as traffic lanes rather than at right angles across the strip widths. (See Figure 9)

Begin with the "starter strip" of flooring alongside an exterior wall, preferably the longest room dimension. Refer to Figure 8. If flooring will be installed in several rooms, locate the starter strip in a hallway that includes the longest end-to-end span. The starter strip will be the beginning strip in rooms either to the left or right of it.

Strike a chalk line one strip wide plus 1/2" from the starting wall, making certain chalk lines are square. This 1/2" gap is a buffer zone for expansion. Mouldings will conceal the 1/2" gap between finished flooring and end walls. Allow a 1/8" space around door jambs and wall partitions. Refer to Figure 10. Face-nail starter strip tongue side out, with 6d or 8d finishing nails, 1" from tongue side. Countersink nail heads and align groove side with chalk line. Refer to Figure 8.

Blind nailing to the subfloor
Each course will be nailed with your back to the starter wall, working from left to right. Recommended nail spacing is 8½ to 10½ and double-nailed 1" to 3" from ends. Use strips 8" or longer on the ending wall and begin the next course with the remaining piece. Loosely lay the next 7 or 8 rows. Do not use strips shorter than 6". Arrange lengths randomly, avoiding clusters of short strips. Using a tapping block, insert each strip groove to tongue. Blind-nail the tongue into the subfloor. (See Figure 11) Avoid nailing into subfloor seams, as nails will not anchor properly. Nail and countersink 2 to 3 rows, clearing the starter wall for the use of a power nailer. Countersink all face nails and nail each strip end. Nail strip sides using an 8½ spacing.

Figure 9 Flooring Layout Plan

Figure 10 Laying Flooring Around Walls and Partitions


If necessary, rip the last row leaving a 1/2" space between the wall and flooring. Face-nail the last runs of the floor when unable to blind-nail by hand.

Proper nailing should incorporate using enough nails, proper spacing, and the correct nail type. It will also reduce the likelihood of floor squeaks.

Table 2: Nailing Schedule
1" and 1-1/4" thicknesses
1/2" to 3-1/2"
7d or 8d
cut nail
screw nail
8" to 10" and
1" to 3"
from ends

horizontal rule

4" and wider
7d or 8d
cut nail
screw nail
every 8"
NOTE: DO NOT glue Southern Pine Flooring


Plank Flooring

The installation of plank flooring (4" and wider) is similar to that of strip floor installations, with a few noteworthy exceptions.

Generally, recommended fastener spacing is 8"; however, consult the flooring manufacturer's instructions for specific fastener information.

The wider widths of plank flooring increases the amount of expansion and shrinkage related to moisture absorption and evaporation, magnifying board separations and cupping. Applying a sealer to the planking underside prior to installation may reduce the impact of potential moisture change problems. Experienced flooring installers recommend face-nailing plank flooring that is 8" and wider. Face nailing can further reduce cupping.

In addition, plank floors are not recommended for installation over radiant-heated subfloors.


Radiant-Heated FloorsFigure 11 Nailing Detail

Installation of the subfloor nailing base over radiant-heated systems is slightly different. Plywood panels cut in 4'x4' sections and saw-kerfed on the underside with a 12" grid 3/8" inches deep will adhere to a radiant-heated floor using a 35 sq.ft. per gallon cutback mastic spread rate. Gluing the plywood in place avoids damage nailing may cause.



Southern Pine Flooring: Finishing and Care

Proper finishing begins with thorough removal of all construction debris from the newly installed floor. Nail all loose flooring and replace any damaged boards. Countersink and fill any exposed nail heads, then inspect the floor for any other surface imperfections or obstructions.

Figure 12 Sanding the Finished FloorSanding the Floor

Always sand lengthwise in the direction of the strips, never across. With two-thirds the room length in front of you, begin walking a drum sander forward while slowly lowering the drum to the floor surface. Before stopping the forward pass, slowly raise the drum and stop. Walk the drum sander in the opposite direction, slowly lowering the drum, walking backwards along the same path. Repeat the stopping and drum lifting or starting and drum lowering procedures on each directional change. Begin a new pass forward every 3" to 4" (about the width of one strip) into the unsanded area. After completing the entire room width, walk forward in the opposite direction to sand the remaining area. In other words, you will be walking forward facing the opposite wall. Overlap the passes two to three feet. Refer to Figure 12.

Use an edge sander in closets and in areas the drum sander will not reach. Generally, recommended sanding results can be achieved with three sanding cuts (progressively using grits of coarse, medium and fine). Finally, the use of a screen disk (same grit as the fine cut) on a buffing machine blends the telltale marks of edge and drum sanders.

Stains & Sealers

 Floor finishes provide both a protective and decorative surface. A stain is one option, adding warmth and charm. Stains are available in a wide range of colors.

If the new floor is not stained, it is recommended that a protective sealer be applied. The two types of sealers are penetrating sealers and surface sealers.

Sanding operation...
Penetrating sealers are floor waxes that prevent the penetration of liquids and dirt into the flooring. Chips and scratches are maintainable with small amounts of wax. On new floors, a liquid buffing wax applied to a wax finish forms an additional barrier to dirt and stains. Read the buffing wax label carefully, making certain it is suitable for wood floors. Do not use any product containing water.

Refinishing existing flooring generally does not require a preliminary sanding but, rather, a thorough cleaning and another coat of wax, without leaving any evidence of wax overlap in heavy traffic areas. Penetrating sealers have a lower luster (or a more moderate shine). As the patina sheen wears away, a reapplication of wax will restore it.

Surface sealers, on the other hand, do not penetrate the wood-wearing surface. Instead, they create a wood-bonding surface layer. Different types including polyurethanes, moisture-cured urethanes, and acid-cured urethanes.

Polyurethanes are the more popular surface sealers. They provide both durability and moisture resistance. They are available in oil and water-based formulations, in addition to high-gloss, semi-gloss, matte, and satin finishes.

Finishing steps Polyurethane sealers offer excellent resistance to water, scuff marks and scratches, and provide a durable finish for high-traffic areas such as hallways, kitchens, bathrooms and family rooms. However, polyurethane finishes have a tendency to "yellow" as they age, slightly tinting the floor color. When regular maintenance no longer provides satisfactory floor surface appearance, sanding is recommended before applying a new coat.

Moisture-cure urethanes are the hardest of the surface sealers. These urethane sealers are extremely prone to errors. Do not attempt to apply urethane sealers without the supervision of an experienced floor finisher.

Acid-cured urethanes, also known as "Swedish finishes", provide a clearer and somewhat harder surface finish than polyurethanes. Again, due to the technical intricacies of application, consult a floor finishing professional.

The finish selected will affect how often the floor needs cleaning. A lighter floor will hide dust better; however, dirt, spills, and grit may remain more visible leading to more frequent sweeping. A lighter floor coloring enhances room size; a room appears larger and brighter.

On the other hand, darker colors of finishes tend to conceal scratches, cracks, grit, and sediment, and are more forgiving than lighter colors. Dark floor colors help to camouflage the visual damages of heel marks, gouges, and furniture scratches. Since dark colors absorb light rather than reflect it, a dark floor color may make a room appear smaller than lighter colors.

Finish Application

When applying penetrating stains and finishes, begin by applying enough of the finish lengthwise to cover about one foot from the side wall to the mouldings. Using cloth rags, a brush, or a lambswool pad, wipe evenly to the wall. Apply the stain or wax, then remove and wipe away the excess. To begin a new run, overlap about 3" (one strip wide) taking care to remove any excess and preventing lap marks. Water, perspiration, hand prints, and knee imprints are impenetrable by stains and waxes. Prevent these common causes of discoloration and spotting by avoiding all unnecessary contact with the floor.

Allow overnight drying, returning the next day for a power buff with a fiber buffing or No.1 steel wool. Clean the floor to remove all dust. Apply a second wax layer, or if a stain was applied on the first pass, apply the first layer of wax.

With polyurethane finishes, apply along the length of the room, maintaining a wet edge and feathering brush-stroke overlaps. If edges tack dry, do not overlap brush strokes. Any minor mistakes can be corrected with a buffer.

Allow polyurethane layer to dry (usually overnight) then buff with 120 grit screen or No.2 steel wool pad. Three coats provide optimum floor protection and durability. Remember to buff between each coat.


Southern Pine Flooring: MaintenanceHigh Risk Traffic

With proper care of the finish, a Southern Pine floor is easily maintained and will keep its "new" look for many years.

If the builder, floor installer, or previous owner does not provide a record indicating whether a surface sealer or a penetrating sealer was applied, a simple test will determine what type of finish was used. In a closet or other inconspicuous location, use a coin or knife to scratch the floor surface. If the finish flakes, it is likely to be a surface sealer. If it does not flake, it is most likely a wax finish.

Penetrating Sealers

Sweep the floor regularly or vacuum, but do not use a beater-bar type.

Wipe liquid spills promptly. Use No.2 steel wool on stains caused by water, cigarette burns, ink, or pets. Rewax the area.

Do not use water to maintain wax finishes. For stains, use vinegar, wood floor cleaners, mineral spirits or ammonia. Use very fine steel wool to clean the area, then dry it. Reapply the same color and brand of stain wax, if necessary.

Small repairs can be made by applying a small amount of wax to the affected area, then buffing.

Surface Sealers

Surface sealers require very different care and cleaning procedures than do penetrating sealers.

bulletWipe spills promptly with a dry cloth. Use a damp cloth on sticky spills, then wipe dry with another clean cloth.
bulletSweeping regularly reduces scratching. Do not use beater-bar vacuums on wood floors.
bulletNever use ammonia, oil soap, or any other household cleaner on surface sealers; surface damage and dulling will result.

For general maintenance, use a solution of 1/4 cup vinegar to 4 cups of warm water, dipping it with a clean cloth and wringing dry. Wipe or mop the floor. Using a second cloth, wipe the floor dry.

Do not use waxes to restore the shine on surface sealers. To restore original luster, remove room contents, clean thoroughly, then steel wool the entire surface. Use only the same brand surface sealer as on the existing floor (or read carefully the recommended finish instructions of the sealer manufacturer).


  • Use door mats at entryways. Do not use cocoa fiber or rubber-backed mats.
  • Do not slide refrigerators or other heavy appliances on the floor. Place a clean sheet of plywood on the floor for protection from scratches and gouges.
  • Use area rugs in high-traffic lanes.
  • Avoid wearing high-heeled shoes.
  • Use floor protectors beneath furniture.
  • Sweeping regularly prevents scratching from dirt and grit. Daily sweeping is recommended in homes with small children or large families.
  • Avoid using water on wood floors. Water causes wood to expand.
  • Direct sunlight can discolor wood. Use draperies or blinds to shield the floor from direct sunlight.

    Southern Pine Flooring: Troubleshooting Guide

    Figure 13 Floor Board Separation Floor Board Separation

    Floor board separation or “cracks” under normal circumstances are to be expected in any wood floor. Plank floors, especially, shrink up to 2.5 times more than strip floors. Floor board separation is normal under the following circumstances:
    1. Board gaps found during dry winter months close and disappear in spring.
    2. In strip floors, separations up to the thickness of a dime are normal.
    3. Panelizing caused by subfloor movement. Panelizing can also be caused by the finish material cementing several board coarses together, creating fewer cracks. Consequently, the resulting cracks may be wider than a dime’s thickness.





    Floor board separation
    Dryer air from the home's heating system

    If floor was acclimated during wet conditions and then installed, the building was not ready for flooring. The structure was not in its occupied condition when the flooring was delivered. Equilibrium moisture content occurred after the floor was installed.

    Inadequate nail spacing

    Floor does not have a sealing finish.

    Not a defect in the floor, if the boards expand in the summer months, closing the separation.

    If flooring has a polyurethane finish, a polyurethane filler can be troweled into the floor gaps.

    Face-nail boards every 8" to 10", countersink and fill holes. Refer to Table 2, under Flooring Installation.

    Stabilize the environment establishing the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and apply a sealing finish.

    Floor board buckling
    Inadequate crawl space ventilation, unprepared building (windows and/or doors not installed when flooring was delivered), inadequate nailing, missing or improper vapor barriers. Moisture-related solutions include adding adequate ventilation, installing a vapor barrier in crawl space, checking foundation for water drainage.
    Floor board cupping (convex)
    board edges higher than center
    Site-related moisture conditions
    (see floor board buckling causes)
    Locate and correct moisture causing element.
    Floor board cupping (concave)
    board edges are lower than center
    Floor boards were sanded when cupped. Later, when the floor loses moisture, the underneath side of the boards lay flat exposing the reverse cupping. Locate and correct moisture cause. Allow building components to dry thoroughly.
    Squeaking floors
    Inadequate nailing of either the boards or the subfloor Locate cause and renail. Refer to Table 2, under Flooring Installation



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